Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it. Plaquenil leg cramps Plaquenil lupus remission Hydroxychloroquine risk of ophthalmology Chloroquine- and ammonium chloride-induced inhibition of L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication was completely reversed by iron nitrilotriacetate, an iron compound which is soluble in the neutral to alkaline pH range, but not by iron transferrin, which depends upon acidic intracellular conditions to release iron. Chloroquine is a lysosomotropic agent that prevents endosomal acidification 1. It accumulates inside the acidic parts of the cell, including endosomes and lysosomes. This accumulation leads to inhibition of lysosomal enzymes that require an acidic pH, and prevents fusion of endosomes and lysosomes. Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved transport pathway where targeted structures are sequestered by phagophores, which mature into autophagosomes, and then delivered into lysosomes for degradation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. Chloroquine autophagy inhibitor Autophagy Inhibitor Chloroquine Enhanced the Cell Death., Chloroquine for research Cell-culture tested InvivoGen Hydroxychloroquine sulfate teachingHow does plaquenil affect the eyesChloroquine synthesis reactionPlaquenil immune complexes E-64d is an epoxysuccinyl peptide and an inhibitor of cysteine protease cathepsin B, calpains 1 and 2. E-64d by its cathepsin B protease inhibition functionality, may serve as a potential drug for treating traumatic brain injury TBI. Autophagy Inhibitors - Autophagy Sigma-Aldrich. Chloroquine inhibits autophagic flux by decreasing autophagosome.. Autophagy Inhibitor Chloroquine Enhanced the Cell Death Inducing Effect.. Similar to bafilomycin, the former malaria drug chloroquine CQ is now widely used as an inhibitor of autophagy in both cell culture and in vivo. Chloroquine has a long history of human use and is currently being tested as a sensitizing agent for certain cancers, making understanding its mechanisms of action both topical and important 7, 8, 9. Autophagy is involved in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases and its modulation is beneficial for the outcome of numerous specific diseases. Several lysosomal inhibitors such as bafilomycin A1 BafA1, protease inhibitors and chloroquine CQ, have been used interchangeably to block autophagy in in vitro experiments assuming that they all primarily block lysosomal degradation. Chloroquine CQ is a lysosomotropic agent with an extensive range of biological effects 1. Historically known for its anti-malarial activity, chloroquine is a widely used biological research tool for studying autophagy inhibition. Research studies demonstrate that chloroquine accumulates in acidic lysosomes and increases the lysosomal pH.